[452] Supreme

Completion Date: 03 September 2021
Medium: Paint & Indian ink on MDF
Dimensions: 3 X 7′

Painted on MDF, this piece has pre-drilled holes in it, so gets screwed directly into the wall.

The Supreme Court of the United States + Landmark Cases

This piece chronologically orders all Supreme Court Justices since the court was formed by George Washington in 1789, right up until the present.

116 Justices in Total

109 white men
2 black men
4 white women
1 Hispanic woman

Name | Served | Appointed by

John Jay 1789–95 George Washington
James Wilson 1789–98 George Washington
John Rutledge 1789–91; 1795 George Washington
William Cushing 1790–1810 George Washington
John Blair 1790–96 George Washington
James Iredell 1790–99 George Washington
Thomas Johnson 1792–93 George Washington
William Paterson 1793–1806 George Washington
Samuel Chase 1796–1811 George Washington
Oliver Ellsworth 1796–1800 George Washington
Bushrod Washington 1799–1829 John Adams
Alfred Moore 1800–04 John Adams
John Marshall 1801–35 John Adams
William Johnson 1804–34 Thomas Jefferson
Henry Brockholst Livingston 1807–23 Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Todd 1807–26 Thomas Jefferson
Gabriel Duvall 1811–35 James Madison
Joseph Story 1812–45 James Madison
Smith Thompson 1823–43 James Monroe
Robert Trimble 1826–28 John Quincy Adams
John McLean 1830–61 Andrew Jackson
Henry Baldwin 1830–44 Andrew Jackson
James M. Wayne 1835–67 Andrew Jackson
Roger Brooke Taney 1836–64 Andrew Jackson
Philip P. Barbour 1836–41 Andrew Jackson
John Catron 1837–65 Andrew Jackson
John McKinley 1838–52 Martin Van Buren
Peter V. Daniel 1842–60 Martin Van Buren
Samuel Nelson 1845–72 John Tyler
Levi Woodbury 1845–51 James K. Polk
Robert C. Grier 1846–70 James K. Polk
Benjamin R. Curtis 1851–57 Millard Fillmore
John Archibald Campbell 1853–61 Franklin Pierce
Nathan Clifford 1858–81 James Buchanan
Noah H. Swayne 1862–81 Abraham Lincoln
Samuel Freeman Miller 1862–90 Abraham Lincoln
David Davis 1862–77 Abraham Lincoln
Stephen Johnson Field 1863–97 Abraham Lincoln
Salmon P. Chase 1864–73 Abraham Lincoln
William Strong 1870–80 Ulysses S. Grant
Joseph P. Bradley 1870–92 Ulysses S. Grant
Ward Hunt 1873–82 Ulysses S. Grant
Morrison Remick Waite 1874–88 Ulysses S. Grant
John Marshall Harlan 1877–1911 Rutherford B. Hayes
William B. Woods 1881–87 Rutherford B. Hayes
Stanley Matthews 1881–89 James Garfield
Horace Gray 1882–1902 Chester A. Arthur
Samuel Blatchford 1882–93 Chester A. Arthur
Lucius Q.C. Lamar 1888–93 Grover Cleveland
Melville Weston Fuller 1888–1910 Grover Cleveland
David J. Brewer 1890–1910 Benjamin Harrison
Henry B. Brown 1891–1906 Benjamin Harrison
George Shiras, Jr. 1892–1903 Benjamin Harrison
Howell E. Jackson 1893–95 Benjamin Harrison
Edward Douglass White 1894–1921 Grover Cleveland
Rufus Wheeler Peckham 1896–1909 Grover Cleveland
Joseph McKenna 1898–1925 William McKinley
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. 1902–32 Theodore Roosevelt
William R. Day 1903–22 Theodore Roosevelt
William H. Moody 1906–10 Theodore Roosevelt
Horace H. Lurton 1910–14 William Howard Taft
Charles Evans Hughes 1910–16; 1930–41 William Howard Taft
Willis Van Devanter 1911–37 William Howard Taft
Joseph R. Lamar 1911–16 William Howard Taft
Mahlon Pitney 1912–22 William Howard Taft
James C. McReynolds 1914–41 Woodrow Wilson
Louis Brandeis 1916–39 Woodrow Wilson
John H. Clarke 1916–22 Woodrow Wilson
William Howard Taft 1921–30 Warren G. Harding
George Sutherland 1922–38 Warren G. Harding
Pierce Butler 1923–39 Warren G. Harding
Edward T. Sanford 1923–30 Warren G. Harding
Harlan Fiske Stone 1925–46 Calvin Coolidge
Charles Evans Hughes 1930-41 Herbert Hoover
Owen Roberts 1930–45 Herbert Hoover
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo 1932–38 Herbert Hoover
Hugo L. Black 1937–71 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Stanley F. Reed 1938–57 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Felix Frankfurter 1939–62 Franklin D. Roosevelt
William O. Douglas 1939–75 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Frank Murphy 1940–49 Franklin D. Roosevelt
James F. Byrnes 1941–42 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Robert H. Jackson 1941–54 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Wiley B. Rutledge 1943–49 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Harold H. Burton 1945–58 Harry S. Truman
Fred M. Vinson 1946–53 Harry S. Truman
Tom C. Clark 1949–67 Harry S. Truman
Sherman Minton 1949–56 Harry S. Truman
Earl Warren 1953–69 Dwight D. Eisenhower
John Marshall Harlan 1955–71 Dwight D. Eisenhower
William J. Brennan, Jr. 1956–90 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Charles E. Whittaker 1957–62 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Potter Stewart 1958–81 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Byron R. White 1962–93 John F. Kennedy
Arthur J. Goldberg 1962–65 John F. Kennedy
Abe Fortas 1965–69 Lyndon B. Johnson
Thurgood Marshall 1967–91 Lyndon B. Johnson
Warren E. Burger 1969–86 Richard Nixon
Harry A. Blackmun 1970–94 Richard Nixon
Lewis F. Powell, Jr. 1972–87 Richard Nixon
William H. Rehnquist 1972–2005 Richard Nixon
John Paul Stevens 1975–2010 Gerald Ford
Sandra Day O’Connor 1981–2006 Ronald Reagan
Antonin Scalia 1986–2016 Ronald Reagan
Anthony Kennedy 1988–2018 Ronald Reagan
David H. Souter 1990–2009 George H. W. Bush
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 1993–2000 Bill Clinton
Clarence Thomas 1991–present George H. W. Bush
Stephen G. Breyer 1994–present Bill Clinton
John G. Roberts, Jr. 2005–present George W. Bush
Samuel A. Alito 2006–present George W. Bush
Sonia Sotomayor 2009–present Barack Obama
Elena Kagan 2010–present Barack Obama
Neil Gorsuch 2017–present Donald Trump
Brett Kavanaugh 2018–present Donald Trump
Amy Coney Barrett 2020–present Donald Trump

Landmark Cases included in this piece

Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Holding: Established the doctrine of judicial review

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Holding: The Constitution gives the federal government certain implied powers

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Holding: The power to regulate interstate commerce encompasses the power to regulate navigation

Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
Holding: Americans of African descent, whether free or slave, are not American citizens and cannot sue in federal court

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Holding: Racial segregation laws for public facilities are constitutional as long as the segregated facilities are equal in quality

Schenck v. United States (1919)
Holding: The freedom of speech protection can be restricted if the words represent to society a “clear and present danger”

Korematsu v. United States (1944)
Holding: The exclusion order leading to the internment of Japanese Americans during WWII was constitutional

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Holding: Separate schools are not equal

Cooper v. Aaron (1958)
Holding: States cannot nullify decisions of the federal courts

Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Holding: Illegally obtained material cannot be used in a criminal trial

Engel v. Vitale (1962)
Holding: School initiated-prayer in the public school system violates the First Amendment

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Holding: Indigent defendants must be provided representation without charge

New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Holding: In order to prove libel, a public official must show that what was said against them was made with actual malice

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Holding: Police must inform suspects of their rights before questioning

Terry v. Ohio (1968)
Holding: Stop and frisks do not violate the Constitution under certain circumstances

Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
Holding: Students do not leave their rights at the schoolhouse door

Roe v. Wade (1973)
Holding: Unduly restrictive state regulation of abortion is unconstitutional

United States v. Nixon (1974)
Holding: The President is not above the law.

Goss v. Lopez (1975)
Holding: Students are entitled to certain due process rights.

Texas v. Johnson (1989)
Holding: Even offensive speech such as flag burning is protected by the First Amendment.

Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
Holding: Colleges and universities have a legitimate interest in promoting diversity.

Roper v. Simmons (2005)
Holding: It is cruel and unusual punishment to execute persons for crimes they committed before age 18.